This colossal marble column is a monument to Emperor Trajan, who ruled when Rome reached its peak size. Despite being the first emperor born not in Italy but in the conquered Spain, he had a successful reign. His greatest achievement was his conquest of Dacia (modern day Romania). A continuous frieze spirals up the column, attempting to show the benefits of joining the Roman Empire. Women and children are being treated kindly by Roman soldiers, which was not the case in reality. Violence altogether was downplayed to emphasize Trajan's virtues of order, discipline, and moderation.